A new Texas AgriLife Extension Service publication can help producers choose the right irrigation system for their operations.
Economics of Irrigation Systems is a collaborative work by ag economists, irrigation specialists and ag engineers at AgriLife Extension, Texas AgriLife Research and West Texas A&M University. The research was supported in part by the Ogallala Aquifer Program.
“Irrigation can improve crop production, reduce yield variability and increase profits,” says Steve Amosson, AgriLife Extension economist. “But choosing and buying the appropriate irrigation system is both expensive and complex.”
Each producer must determine water availability, financing, energy sources and prices, commodity prices, labor availability and costs, soil type, operating pressure, pumping lift and several other factors before selecting a system, says Amosson.
“The less efficient the irrigation system, the more effect that fuel price, pumping lift and wage rate have on the cost of producing an irrigated crop,” he says. “Therefore, when there is inflation or volatility of these cost factors, it is more feasible to adopt more efficient irrigation systems and technology.”
To assist producers in these decisions, the researchers identified the costs and benefits of five types of irrigation systems commonly used in Texas: furrow irrigation, mid-elevation spray application or MESA center pivot, low-elevation spray application or LESA center pivot, low-energy precision application or LEPA center pivot and subsurface drip irrigation or SDI.
Some of the findings include:
• Furrow irrigation systems require less capital investment, but have lower water-application efficiency and are more labor intensive.
• Center-pivot systems offer more than enough benefits in application efficiency and reduction in field operations to offset the difference in cost vs. furrow irrigation.
• Half-mile center-pivot systems offer substantial savings compared to quarter-mile systems where it’s feasible to use them.
• LEPA systems generate the highest benefits at low, intermediate and high water-requirement scenarios.
• Advanced irrigation technologies are best suited to high-water-use crops and producers with these systems will not only lower pumping costs, but also see potential savings from the need for fewer field operations.
• SDI is not economically feasible compared to LEPA for typical crops because of the high investment and small gain in application efficiency. It’s best adopted where pivots cannot physically be installed. However, producers should closely evaluate using subsurface drip for high-value crops such as fruits, vegetables and cotton. Research suggests that it may improve yields enough to offset costs through improved application efficiency and the timing of frequent applications.
“We identify in the publication the economic feasibility of replacing inefficient natural-gas engines with more efficient models,” says Amosson. “In another section, we analyze the decision of when to switch from natural gas-powered irrigation to electric-powered irrigation.”
The publication will allow producers to plug in the factors on their particular operations and, after looking at all the inputs, determine whether they need to make changes or updates to their irrigation systems, he says.
The 14-page brochure can be downloaded at agrilifecdn.tamu.edu/amarillo/files/2011/10/Irrigation-Bulletin-FINAL-B6113.pdf or agecoext.tamu.edu/resources/library/publications.html. A printed copy can be purchased for $5 through the AgriLife Extension Bookstore at agrilifebookstore.org.
For more information, contact Amosson at 806-677-5600 or firstname.lastname@example.org.